All the important words in the provably fair world

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There are currently 17 names in this directory

Two-factor authentication. A method to secure the access to an online account. Typically, the user will have to provide two different proofs that he/she is the legitimate owner of the account before being able to log in, such as a password and a verification code. This code can be sent by email or by SMS or obtained through dedicated apps such as Google Authenticator, Authy or others.
Securing your online gaming/trading/wallet accounts with 2FA is highly recommended.

The mother of all crypto-currencies, and the best currency in the world. Beware of copycats: there is only one Bitcoin.

Buster (or Bust game)
Online money game based on a reward increasing with time: the longer you wait, the more you can win, the higher the risk.
Generally, the players place a bet and watch a randomly defined number increase with time, along with the possible associated reward (from 1x upwards). They can usually cash out anytime (and get the reward) or keep waiting to get a bigger reward. But at a randomly defined moment, the game will stop and all players still in it will be ”busted”, losing all of their bet. Hint: stressful games.

Decentralized apps (dApps)
A new generation of online applications that don't rely on a central server to work, but use a decentralized peer-to-peer network to avoid single points of failure.
Today's most popular dApps use blockchains and are usually accessed through a standard Web browser but require a connection to a crypto wallet such as Metamask or TrustWallet (for the Ethereum blockchain). The wallet is used to identify users, sign transactions, and record everything happening in the app on blockchains.

Do Your Own Research. What you're supposed to do before investing in a project or depositing money on a gaming website.

The mother of most crypto-tokens and the second best currency in the world.

Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt. Negative comments, rumors and/or fake news spread intentionally to hurt a company, a project or a crypto-currency.

A cryptographic hash function takes any input and transforms it into a fixed-size alphanumeric string called a ”hash”. This transformation is ”one way”: when given a hash, there is no way to know the original input that lead to it. And, of course, two different inputs will lead to completely different hashes.Therefore, a hash is a very convenient way to prove that an input was not altered without revealing this input.
Read more about it in our ”Understanding Hashing” guide.

House Edge
A percentage of the amounts bet by players that a casino (the ”house”) keeps for itself, for a specific game.
The house edge therefore gives a good idea of the advantage (the ”edge”) the casino has over the players and, coincidentally, of the chances of losing/winning for a player. If a game has an house edge of 3%, in average the casino will give back 97% of the bets to the players. Or, over the long run, the player will lose 3% of the money he/she wagered.
In a blockchain-based provably fair game, since all transactions are recorded on a public ledger, it is possible to calculate the precise house edge for a given game, and to compare it to what the operator is advertising.

Know Your Customer. The generic term to describe the process adopted by companies to comply with legal requirements regarding their customers, and translating into forcing the users to give their identity, mobile number, proof of location, or other credentials. Usually tedious and annoying.

Provably Fair
A method to prove that a game was fair (ie used random draws or was not tampered with) after the game happened.

Random Number Generator. An algorithm or a method used to produce random numbers.

In a cryptographic context, a salt is way to add randomness to the hashing process of data.
Imagine that you calculate the hash of the possible outcome of a standard dice. The resulting hash will theoretically hide the original number but, since there only 6 of them, each one leading to a unique hash, the result will in fact be quickly recognizable and predictable. Now, before calculating the hash, add to each number the exact time when you started processing the hash. Each hash will be completely different from the previous results: you have added a ”grain of salt” to the hashing mechanism, changing the outcome in a less predictable way.

In the provably fair gaming world, seeds are sets of data from which the random numbers (and therefore the winning combinations) are derived. The ”server seed” is generated by the operator of the game. The ”user seed” is a way for a player to participate in the outcome. Typically, before a draw, the player can choose a number that will be combined with the server seed to derive the result. Once the game is over, the player will be able to verify that his/her number was indeed used in the process and randomly influenced the outcome.
Seed and salt are not totally different, as they both aim at increasing randomness. The salt's purpose is to make the hashes even less recognizable by adding some additional randomness to the seeds.
For the crypto-currencies wallets, the word has a slightly different meaning: the seed is usually a set of words (12, sometimes 24) used to derive all crypto-addresses used by the wallet.

SHA, or Secure Hash Algorithms, are military-grade cryptographic hash functions standardized by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). One of these, SHA-256, is commonly used all over the world to generate unique signatures (hash) of any textual input, and is one of the basis of the Bitcoin protocol.

Smart contract
A programmed contract to securely and automatically execute transactions between parties, depending on future conditions.
Several major public blockchains such as Ethereum, EOS, Lisk, or NEM have been specifically designed to facilitate the deployment of smart contracts, which are meant to play an essential and increasing role in the new, decentralized and crypto-based world. In short, smart contracts make money programmable.
An increasing number of provably fair games are based on smart contracts: the odds, the house edge and all game mechanisms are coded in a contract accessible on a blockchain and cannot be modified during a game.